抛砖引玉

 
pāo zhuān yǐn yù (pao zhuan yin yu)
throw a brick to catch a jade piece (crude remarks made in hope of drawing forth abler people)

This proverb is based on a story involving two famous poets of the Tang Dynasty. There was a great poet named Zhao Gu (趙嘏) and another lesser poet by the name of Chang Jian (常建). While Chang Jian was traveling in Suzhou, he heard news that Zhao Gu would be visiting a temple in the area. Chang Jian wished to learn from the master poet, so he devised a plan and went to the temple in advance, then wrote a poem on the temple walls with only two of the four lines completed, hoping Zhao Gu would see it and finish the poem. Zhao Gu acted as Chang Jian forsaw, and from this story came the proverb.

This also refers to baiting an opponent into a trap using the illusion of gain, wealth, power, sex, etc.

Prepare a trap then lure your enemy into the trap by using bait. In war the bait is the illusion of an opportunity for gain. In life the bait is the illusion of wealth, power, and sex.

Warring States Era China

The earl of Zhi was preparing to attack Lesser Wei. To prepare for his attack he presented the king of Wei with four hundred mustangs and a beautiful white jade Bi. The king was overjoyed and his ministers all offered their congratulations, but one minister, Nan-wen Ci looked distressed. The king seeing his demeanor asked: "The great state is very pleased with us! Why then do you look troubled?" The minister replied: "One must always examine thoroughly a reward given for no merit and deference shown where no force has been applied. Four hundred mustangs and a white jade Bi constitute the kind of gift a small state might give when serving a great one. But in this case the larger state makes the gift. Your majesty should ponder this." As a precaution, the king of Wei told his commander of the border guards what his minister had cautioned and ordered his troops to be on full alert. Shortly thereafter, as the minister intimated, the earl of Zhi arrived at the border at the head of a large army. But when the earl saw the border guards posted at full strength, he retired saying: "Alas, there are worthy men in Wei, for they have anticipated my plans."

Pang Juan

During the Warring States period, Pang Juan of Wei attacked Han. Tian Ji and Sun Bin of Qi again besieged Wei to save Han. When Pang Juan heard the news, he withdrew from Han to defend Wei.

Sun Bin said, "The Wei troops were reputed to be strong and brave and tend to regard the Qi soldiers as cowards. We can turn the disadvantage to our advantage."

The first day after the Qi army entered Wei, Sun Bin ordered his troops to use 100,000 stoves for camp fire. On the second day, the troops were ordered to use 50,000 stoves. On the third day, 30,000 stoves were used.

After pursuing the retreating Qi troops for three days, Pang Juan counted the number of Qi campsite stove fires. He was overjoyed thinking that the Qi troops feared combat and more than half of them had deserted. Confident of victory, Pang Juan left his foot soldiers behind and led cavalry troops to give chase.

Sun Bin had been tracking the progress of the Wei pursuers. He told Tian Ji, "They'll reach Malin tonight. At Malin, there's a narrow path between two mountain peaks. Let's lay an ambush."

The Qi soldiers hid themselves at Malin to wait for the enemy. Sun Bin ordered his soldiers to strip the bark of a huge old tree there and wrote, "Pang Juan dies here." Sun Bin ordered 10,000 archers to hide on the two mountain peaks and to start shooting when they see fire that night.

The Wei troops indeed arrived after dark. They came upon the huge old tree. Pang Juan ordered the torches to be lit so that he could see the words written on the tree. When the torches were lit, Qi archers began firing arrows. The Wei troops were doomed and Pang Juan took his own life.

Meaning: 抛出砖去,引回玉来。比喻用自己不成熟的意见或作品引出别人更好的意见或好作品。

Context: 宋·释道原《景德传灯录》卷十:“比来抛砖引玉,却引得个坠子。”

Example: 刚才婢子费了唇舌,说了许多书名,原是~,以为借此长长见识,不意竟是如此! ◎清·李汝珍《镜花缘》第十八回

Synonyms: 引玉之砖、一得之见

Grammar: 连动式;作谓语、定语、宾语、分句;用于谦词

类以诱之①,击蒙也②。

【注释】

①类以诱之:出示某种类似的东西并去诱惑他。

②击蒙也:语出《易经.蒙》如。参前“借尸还魂”计注释④。击,撞击,打击。句意为:诱惑敌人,便可打击这种受我诱惑的愚蒙之人了。

【按语】

诱敌之法甚多,最妙之法,不在疑似之间,而在类同,以固其惑。以旌旗金鼓诱敌者,疑似也;以老弱粮草诱敌者,则类同也。如:楚伐绞,军其南门,屈瑕曰: “绞小而轻,轻则寡谋,请勿捍采樵者以诱之。”从之,绞人获利。明日绞人争出,驱楚役徙于山中。楚人坐守其北门,而伏诸山下,大败之,为城下之盟而还。又如孙膑减灶而诱杀庞涓。

【解析】

战争中,迷惑敌人的方法多种多样,最妙的方法不是用似是而非的方法,而是应用极相类似的方法,以假乱真。比如,用旋旗招展、鼓声震天来引诱敌人,属“疑似”法,往往难以奏效。而用老弱残兵或者遗弃粮食柴草之法诱敌,属“类同”法,这样做,容易迷惑敌人,可以收到效果,因为类同之法更容易造成敌人的错觉,使其判断失误。当然,使用此计,必须充分了解敌方将领的情况,包括他们的军事水平、心理素质、性格特征,这样才能让此计发挥效力。正如《百诫奇略.利战》中所说:“凡与敌战,其将愚而不知变,可诱以利,彼贪利而不知害,可设伏兵击之,其军可败。法曰‘利而诱之’。”庞涓就是因为骄矜自用,才中了孙膑减灶撤军之计,死于马陵道的。

【探源】

抛砖引玉,出自《传灯录》。相传唐代诗人常建,听说赵嘏要去游览苏州的灵岩寺。为了请赵嘏作诗,常建先在庙壁上题写了两句,赵嘏见到后,立刻提笔续写了两句,而且比前两句写得好。后来文人称常建的这种作法为“抛砖引玉”。此计用于军事,是指用相类似的事物去迷惑、诱骗敌人,使其懵懂上当,中我圈套,然后乘机击败敌人的计谋。“砖”和“玉”,是一种形象的比喻。“砖”,指的是小利,是绣饵;“玉”,指的是作战的目的,即大的胜利。“引玉”,才是目的,“抛砖”,是为了达到目的的手段。钓鱼需用钓饵,先让鱼儿尝到一点甜头,它才会上钩;敌人占了一点便宜,才会误入圈套,吃大亏。

公元前700年,楚国用“抛砖引玉”的策略,轻取绞城。这一年,楚国发兵攻打绞国(今湖北郧县西北),大军行动迅速。楚军兵临城下,气势旺盛,绞国自知出城迎战,凶多吉少,决定坚守城池。绞城地势险要,易守难攻。楚军多次进攻,均被击退。两军相持一个多月。楚国大夫莫傲屈居瑕仔细分析了敌我双方的情况,认为绞城只可智取,不可力克。他向楚王献上一条“以鱼饵钓大鱼”的计谋。他说:“攻城不下,不如利而诱之。”楚王向他问诱敌之法。屈瑕建议:趁绞城被围月余,城中缺少薪柴之时,派些士兵装扮成樵夫上山打柴运回来,敌军一定会出城劫夺柴草。头几天,让他们先得一些小利,等他们麻痹大意,大批士兵出城劫夺柴草之时,先设伏兵断其后路,然后聚而歼之,乘势夺城。楚王担心绞国不会轻易上当,屈瑕说:“大王放心,绞国虽小而轻燥,轻躁则少谋略。有这样香甜的钓饵,不愁它不上钩。”楚王于是依计而行,命一些士兵装扮成樵夫上山打柴。

绞侯听探子报告有挑夫进山的情况,忙问这些樵夫有无楚军保护。探子说,他们三三两两进出,并无兵士跟随。绞候马上布置人马,待“樵夫”背着柴禾出山之机,突然袭击,果然顺利得手,抓了三十多个“樵夫”,夺得不少柴草。一连几天,果然收获不小。见有利可图,绞国士兵出城劫夺柴草的越来越多。楚王见敌人已经吞下钓饵,便决定迅速逮大鱼。第六天,绞国士兵象前几天一样出城劫掠,“樵夫”们见绞军又来劫掠,吓得没命的逃奔,绞国士兵紧紧追赶,不知不觉被引入楚军的埋伏圈内。只见伏兵四起,杀声震天,纹国士兵哪里抵挡得住,慌忙败退,又遇伏兵断了归路,死伤无数。楚王此时趁机攻城,绞侯自知中计,已无力抵抗,只得请降。

【故事】

公元690年,契丹攻占营州。武则天派曹仁师、张玄遇、李多祚、麻仁节四虽大将西征,想夺回营州,平定契丹。契丹先锋孙万荣熟读兵书,颇有机谋。他想到唐军声势浩大,正面交锋,与已不利。他首先在营州制造缺粮的舆论,并故意让被俘的唐军逃跑,唐军统帅曹仁师见—路上逃回的唐兵面黄饥瘦,并从他们那里得知营州严重缺粮,营州城内契丹将士军心不稳。曹仁师心中大喜,认为契丹不堪一击,攻占营州指日可待。

唐军先头部队张玄遇和麻仁节部,想夺头功,向营州火速前进,一路上,还见到从营州逃出的契丹老弱士卒,他们自称营州严重缺粮,士兵纷纷逃跑,并表示愿意归降唐军。张、麻二将更加相信营州缺粮、契丹军心不稳了。他们率部日夜兼程,赶到西硖石谷,只见道路狭窄,两边悬崖绝壁。按照用兵之法,这里正是设埋伏的险地。可是,张、麻二人误以为契丹士卒早已饿得不堪一击了,加上夺取头功的心情驱使,下令部队继续前进。

唐军络绎不绝,进入谷中,艰难行进。黄昏时分,只听—声炮响,绝壁之上,箭如雨下,唐军人马践踏,死伤无数。孙万荣亲自率领人马从四面八方进击唐军。唐军进退不得,前有伏兵,后有骑兵截杀,不战自乱。张、麻二人被契丹军生擒。孙万荣利用搜出的将印,立即写信报告曹仁师,谎报已经攻克营州,要曹仁师迅速到营州处理契丹头人。曹仁师早就轻视契丹,接信后,深信不疑,马上率部奔往营州。大部队急速前进,准备穿过峡谷,赶往营州。不用说,这支目无敌情的部队重蹈覆辙,在西峡石谷,遭到契丹伏兵围追堵截,全军覆没。

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