苦肉计

 
kǔ ròu jì (ku rou ji)
inflict injury on oneself to win the enemy's trust

Pretending to be injured has two possible applications. In the first, the enemy is lulled into relaxing his guard since he no longer considers you to be an immediate threat. The second is a way of ingratiating yourself to your enemy by pretending the injury was caused by a mutual enemy.

Edo Period Japan

During the Tokugawa period, Kaei Juzo a former spy had come under suspicion and was in danger of being assassinated. It turned out that the man sent to kill him was a former acquaintance called Tonbe. Not wishing to kill his old friend, Tonbe and Juzo worked out the classic ploy as follows. Tonbe brought Juzo back as a prisoner to the Shogun. Juzo begged the Shogun to allow him one last dignity, permission to commit Harakiri. The Shogun, curious to see the notorious spy's bravery in death, allowed him that privilege. Juzo was given a tanto (dagger) that he plunged into his belly, and, cutting sideways, spilled his intestines onto the ground before falling over. The guards removed the body and threw it in the castle's moat. A short time later Juzo quietly swum to shore and escaped the district. Knowing that his warrior's reputation would merit him the right of committing Harakiri, Juzo had strapped a dead fox across his abdomen, when the fox's intestines spilled out it was indistinguishable from human intestines.

Spring and Autumn Period

This strategy was perhaps best demonstrated during the Spring and Autumn Period. After his defeat by King Fuchai of Wu, King Goujian of Yue pretended to go to Wu to become a servant of Fuchai. After gaining Fuchai's trust, Guo Jian was allow back to Yue. There he strengthen his military and in 482 BC while Fuchai was trying to gain hegemony, he attacked and conquered the capital. Some years later in 478 BC, he annexed Wu and forced Fuchai to commit suicide.

Spring and Autumn period

People rarely inflict injuries on themselves, so when they get injured, it is usually genuine. Exploit this naivety and make the enemy believe one's words; then the trick to sow discord among enemies will pay off. In this case, one takes advantage of the enemy's weakness, and makes the enemy look as if he were a naive child easily taken in.

This stratagem is often used with 反间计. Pretend to take no notice of being monitered and feed the enemy with information which he won't suspect is false.

During the Spring and Autumn period, King He Lu wanted to the prince of Wei Qing Ji. His advisor Wu Zixu told him that Qing Ji is a powerfully-built man and that to kill him, they must call upon Yao Li.

Yao Li deliberately insulted He Lu in front of others. He Lu ordered his right hand to be chopped off. Yao Li then went to seek refuge in Qing Ji's domain.

Suspicious, Qing Ji sent men to Wu to check out Yao Li. A few days later, the men returned and reported that the king of Wu beheaded Yao Li's family and had their bodies burned in public. Yao Li cried and vowed that he would make the king of Wu pay the blood debt.

Thereafter Yao Li became Qing Ji' confidant. One day, while they were on an expedition to attack Wu, Yao Li sprang on Qing Ji and killed him. After killing Qing Ji, Yao Li slit his own throat.

The king of Wu became the dominant power of the south.

人不自害,受害必真;假真真假,间以得行①。童蒙之吉,顺以巽也②。

【注释】

①人不自害,受害为真;假真真假,间以得行:(正常情况下)人不会自我伤害,若他受害必然是真情;(利用这种常理)我则以假作真,以真作假,那么离间计就可实行了。

②童蒙之吉,顺以巽也:语出《易经.蒙》卦(卦名解释见第十四计注)。本卦六五.《象》辞:“童蒙之吉,顺以巽也。”本意是说幼稚蒙昧之人所以吉利,是因为柔顺服从。

  本计用此象理,是说用采用这种办法欺骗敌人,就是顺应着他那柔弱的性情达到目的。

【按语】

间者,使敌人相疑也;反间者,因敌人之疑,而实其疑也;苦肉计者,盖假作自间以间人也。凡遣与己有隙者以诱敌人,约为响应,或约为共力者:皆苦肉计之类也。如:郑武公伐胡而先以女妻胡君,并戮关其思;韩信下齐而骊生遭烹。

【解析】

间谍工作,是十分复杂而变化多端的。用间谍,使敌人互相猜忌;做反间谍,是利用敌人内部原来的矛盾,增加他们相互之间的猜忌;用苦肉计,是假装自己去作敌人的间谍,而实际上是到敌方从事间谍活动。派遣同己方有仇恨的人去迷惑敌人,不管是作内应也好,或是协同作战也好,都属于苦肉计。

郑国武公伐胡,竟先将自己的女儿许配给胡国的君主,并杀掉了主张伐胡的关其思,使胡不防郑,最后郑国举兵攻胡,一举歼灭了胡国。汉高祖派骊食其劝齐王降汉,使齐王没有防备汉军的进攻。韩信果断地乘机伐齐,齐王怒而煮死了骊食其。这类故事都让我们看到,为了胜利,花了多大的代价!只有看似“违背常理”的自我牺牲,才容易达到欺骗敌人的目的。

【探源】

苦肉计:人们都不愿意伤害自己,如果说被别人伤害,这肯定是真的。己方如果以假当真,敌方肯定信而不疑。这样才能使苦肉之计得以成功。此计其实是一种特殊作法的离间计。运用此计,“自害”是真,“他害”是假,以真乱假。己方要造成内部矛盾激化的假象,再派人装作受到迫害,借机钻到敌人心脏中去进行间谍活动。

周瑜打黄盖——一个愿打,一个愿挨。这已是尽人皆知的故事了。两人事先商量好了,假戏真作,自家人打自家人,骗过曹操,诈降成功,火烧了曹操八十三万兵马。

春秋时期,吴王阖闾杀了吴王僚,夺得王位。他十分惧怕吴王僚的儿子庆忌为父报仇。庆忌正在卫国扩大势力,准备攻打齐国,夺取王位。

阖闾整日提心吊胆,要大臣伍子胥替他设法除掉庆忌。伍于胥向阖闾推荐了一个智勇双全的勇士,名叫要离。阖闾见要离矮小瘦弱,说道:“庆忌人高马大,勇力过人,如何杀得了他?”要离说:“刺杀庆忌,要靠智不靠力。只要能接近他,事情就好办。”阖闾说:“庆忌对吴国防范最严,怎么能够接近他呢?”要离说:“只要大王砍断我的右臂,杀掉我的妻子,我就能取信于庆忌。”阖闾不肯答应。要离说:“为国亡家,为主残身,我心甘情愿。”

吴都忽然流言四起:阖闾弑君篡位,是无道昏君。吴王下今追查,原来流言是要离散布的。阖闾下令捉了要离和他的妻子,要离当面大骂昏王。阖闾假借追查同谋,未杀要离而只是斩断了他的右臂,把他夫妻二人关进监狱。

几天后,伍子胥让狱卒放松看管,让要离乘机逃出。阖闾听说要离逃跑,就杀了他的妻子。这件事不断传遍吴国,邻近的国家也都知道了。要离逃到卫国,求见庆忌,要求庆忌为他报断臂杀妻之仇,庆忌接纳了他。

要离果然接近了庆忌,他劝说庆忌伐吴。要离成了庆忌的贴身亲信。庆忌乘船向吴国进发,要离乘庆忌没有防备,从背后用矛尽力刺去,刺穿了胸膛。庆忌的卫士要捉拿要离。庆忌说:“敢杀我的也是个勇士,放他走吧!”庆忌因失血过多而死。要离完成了刺杀庆忌的任务,家毁身残,也自刎而死。

【故事】

南宋时,金兵南侵,金兀术与岳飞在朱仙镇摆开决战的战场。金兀术有一义子,名叫陆文龙,这年十六岁,英勇过人,是岳家军的劲敌。陆文龙本是宋朝潞安州节度使陆登的儿子,金兀术攻陷潞安州,陆登夫妻双双殉国。金兀术将还是婴儿的陆文龙和奶娘掳至金营,收为义子。陆文龙对自己的家世完全不知。

一日,岳飞正在思考破敌之策,忽见部将王佐进帐。岳飞看见王佐脸色蜡黄,右臂已被斩断(已敷药包扎),大为惊奇,忙问发生了什么事。原来王佐打算只身到金营,策动陆文龙反金。为了让金兀术不猜疑,才采取断臂之计。岳飞十分感激,泪如泉涌。

王佐连夜到金营,对金兀术说道:“小臣王佐.本是杨么的部下,官封车胜侯。杨么失败我只得归顺岳飞。昨夜帐中议事,小臣进言,金兵二百万,实难抵挡,不如议和。岳飞听了大怒,命人斩断我的右臂,并命我到金营通报,说岳家军即日要来生擒狼主,踏平金营。臣要是不来,他要斩断我的另一只臂。因此,我只得哀求狼主。”

金兀术同情他,叫他“苦人儿”,把他留在营中。王佐利用能在金营自由行动的机会,接近陆文龙的奶娘,说服奶娘,一同向陆文龙讲述了他的身世。文龙知道了自己的身世后,决心为父母报仇,诛杀金贼。王佐指点他不可造次,要伺机行动。

金兵此时运来一批轰天大炮,准备深夜轰击岳家军营,幸亏陆文龙用箭书报了信,使岳军免受损失。当晚,陆文龙、王佐、奶娘投奔宋营。王佐断臂,终于使猛将陆文龙回到宋朝,立下了不少战功。

Syndicate content