金蝉脱壳

 
jīn chán tuō qiào (jin chan tuo qiao)
the golden cicada sheds its skin (escape unnoticed)

Mask yourself. Either leave flamboyant traits behind, thus going incognito; or just masquerade yourself and create an illusion to fit your goals and distract others.

When you are in danger of being defeated, and your only chance is to escape and regroup, then create an illusion. While the enemy's attention is focused on this artifice, secretly remove your men leaving behind only the facade of your presence.

Battle of Gallipoli

With the Battle of Gallipoli evacuation the British and Anzac forces were able to retreat without being routed by creating the illusion that their trenches remained occupied.

Three Kingdoms Period China

The warlord Cao Cao of Wei, was pursuing the fleeing army and population of Shu led by the heroes of the Peach Grove, Liu Pei and Chang Fei. The retreating column came upon the Changpan bridge over the Wei river with the enemy army only hours behind. On the opposite side of the river there was heavy forest. Chang Fei turned to his general Liu Pei and said: "This bridge is the only crossing point for miles and provides us with an advantage. You take the army and people across while I hold off the Wei army to give you as much of a lead as possible." After the Shu army had crossed over, Chang Fei sent his small group of cavalrymen across the bridge into the forest where they tied branches to their horses tails and rode around in circles. Chang Fei remained sitting on his charger in the middle of the bridge. When the pursuing army of Wei came upon the sight of Chang Fei alone on the bridge they stopped. Cao Cao noticed the huge dust cloud in the distance behind the woods and suspected a trap. Chang Fei roared out a challenge to the Wei army but Cao Cao, now convinced this was a ruse, turned his men around to retreat. Chang Fei seeing the Wei army turn about spurred his charger towards the Wei as though to attack them single handedly. This so unnerved the Wei forces that they made a mad scramble to escape the area convinced a trap was closing around them. This trick bought Lui Pei and Chang Fei enough time to escape with their men and regroup at Chianling.

Ning Zong

During the reign of emperor Ning Zong of the Southern Song Dynasty, the Jin tribal army attacked China. A capable general, Bi Daibi, beat off the Jin attack. But the determined Jin sent tens of thousands of cavalry soldiers to besiege the Song camp.

The Song forces were very worried. They had only a few thousand soldiers. But Bi Daibi thought of a brilliant plan.

Seeing that the Song forces did not react, the Jin troops were wary, but returned to their camp first. That night, the sounds of war drums rang out and the Song flags were raised. The Jin troops scrambled, ready to fight the enemy.

The beating of the drums went on but no troops emerged to fight. It went on for three days. The Jin thought that the Song forces were trying to keep them alert. Having no rest, the Jin troops returned to their camps.

Only when the sound of the war drums became faint did the Jin troops dare to enter the Song camp. The Jin found many goats with their hind legs tied to a tree and a drum placed underneath the fore legs. The beating of the drums came from the trembling fore legs of the goats. The Song forces have retreated three dys ago.

Meaning: 蝉变为成虫时要脱去一层壳。比喻用计脱身,使人不能及时发觉。

Context: 元·关汉卿《谢天香》第二折:”便使尽些伎俩,千愁断我肚肠,觅不的个金蝉脱壳这一个谎。”

Example: 如今便赶着躲了,料也躲不及,少不得要使个“~”的法子。 ◎清·曹雪芹《红楼梦》第二十七回

Synonyms: 缓兵之计、瞒天过海

Antonyms: 瓮中捉鳖

Grammar: 主谓式;作谓语、宾语、定语;比喻用掩人耳目的手段

存其形,完其势①;友不疑,敌不动。巽而止蛊②。

【注释】

①存其形,完其势,保存阵地已有的战斗形貌,进一步完备继续战斗的各种态势。

②巽而止蛊:语出《易经.蛊》卦。蛊,卦名。本卦为异卦相叠(巽下艮上)。本卦上卦为艮为山为刚,为阳卦;巽为风为柔,为阴势。故“蛊”的卦象是“刚上柔下”,意即高山沉静,风行于山下,事可顺当。又,艮在上卦,为静;巽为下卦,为谦逊,故说“谦虚沉静”,“弘大通泰”是天下大治之象。

  此计引本卦《彖》辞:“巽而止,蛊。”其意是我暗中谨慎地实行主力转移,稳住敌人,我则乘敌不惊疑之际脱离险境,就可安然躲过战乱之危。“蛊”,意为顺事。

【按语】

共友击敌,坐观其势。尚另有一敌,则须去而存势。则金蝉脱壳者,非徒走也,盖为分身之法也。故大军转动.而旌旗金鼓,俨然原阵,使敌不敢动,友不生疑,待己摧他敌而返,而友敌始知,或犹且不如。然则金蝉脱壳者,在对敌之际,而抽精锐以袭别阵也。如:诸墓亮卒于军,司马懿追焉,姜维令仪反旗鸣鼓,若向懿者,懿退,于是仪结营而去。檀道济被围,乃命军士悉甲,身自(白)服乘舆徐出外围,魏惧有伏,不敢逼,乃归。

【解析】

认真分析形势,准确作出判断,摆脱敌人,转移部队,决不是消极逃胞,一走了事,而应该是一种分身术,要巧妙地暗中调走精锐部队去袭击别处的敌人。但这种调动要神不知,鬼不觉,极其隐蔽。因此,一定要把假象造得有逼真的效果。转移时,依然要旗帜招展,战鼓隆隆,好象仍然保持着原来的阵势,这样可以使敌军不敢动,友军不怀疑。檀道济在被敌人围困时,竟然能带着武装士兵,自己穿着显眼的白色服装,坐在车上,不慌不忙地向外围进发。敌军见此,以为檀道济设有伏兵,不敢逼近,让檀道济安然脱离围困。檀道济此计,险中有奇,使敌人被假象迷惑,作出了错误的判断。

【探源】

金蝉脱壳的本意是:寒蝉在蜕变时,本体脱离皮壳而走,只留下蝉蜕还挂在枝头。此计用于军事,是指通过伪装摆脱敌人,撤退或转移,以实现我方的战略目标的谋略。稳住对方,撤退或转移,决不是惊慌失措,消极逃跑,而是保留形式,抽走内容,稳住对方,使自己脱离险境,达到己方战略目标,己方常常可用巧妙分兵转移的机会出击另一部分敌人。

三国时期,诸葛亮六出祁山,北伐中原,但一直未能成功,终于在第六次北伐时,积劳成疾,在五丈原病死于军中。为了不使蜀军在退回汉中的路上遭受损失,诸葛亮在临终前向姜维密授退兵之计。姜维遵照诸葛亮的吩咐,在诸葛亮死后,秘不发丧,对外严密封锁消息。他带着灵柩,秘密率部撤退。司马懿派部队跟踪追击蜀军。姜维命工匠仿诸葛亮摸样,雕了一个木人,羽扇纶巾,稳坐车中。并派杨仪率领部分人马大张旗鼓,向魏军发动进攻。魏军远望蜀军,军容整齐,旗鼓大张,又见诸葛亮稳坐车中,指挥若定,不知蜀军又耍什么花招,不敢轻举妄动。司马懿一向知道诸葛亮“诡计多端”,又怀疑此次退兵乃是诱敌之计,于是命令部队后撤,观察蜀军动向。姜维趁司马懿退兵的大好时机,马上指挥主力部队,迅速安全转移,撤回汉中。等司马懿得知诸葛亮已死,再进兵追击,为时已晚。

【故事】

宋朝开禧年间,金兵屡犯中原。宋将毕再遇与金军对垒,打了几次胜仗。金兵又调集数万精锐骑兵,要与宋军决战。此时,宋军只有几千人马,如果与金军决战,必败无疑。毕再遇为了保存实力,准备暂时撤退。金军已经兵临城下,如果知道宋军撤退,肯定会追杀。那样,宋军损失一定惨重。毕再遇苦苦思索如何蒙蔽金兵,转移部队。这对,只听帐外,马蹄声响,毕再遇受到启发,计上心来。

他暗中作好撤退部署,当天半夜时分,下令兵士擂响战鼓,金军听见鼓响,以为宋军趁夜劫营,急忙集合部队,准备迎战。哪知只听见宋营战鼓隆隆,却不见一个宋兵出城。宋军连续不断地击鼓,搅得金兵整夜不得休息。金军的头领似有所悟:原来宋军采用疲兵之计,用战鼓搅得我们不得安宁。好吧,你擂你的鼓,我再也不会上你的当。宋营的鼓声连续响了两天两夜,金兵根本不予理会。到了第三天,金兵发现,宋营的鼓声逐渐微弱,金军首领断定宋军已经疲惫,就派军分几路包抄,小心翼翼靠近宋营,见宋营毫无反应。金军首领一声令下,金兵蜂踊而上,冲进宋营,这才发现宋军已经全部安全撤离了。

原来毕再遇使了“金蝉脱壳”之计。他命令兵士将数十只羊的后腿捆好绑在树上,使倒悬的羊的前腿拼命蹬踢,又在羊腿下放了几十面鼓,羊腿拼命蹬踢,鼓声隆隆不断。毕再遇用“悬羊击鼓“的计策迷惑了敌军,利用两天的时间安全转移了。

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